Messenger RNA. We continue the speech of the previous article on the anti-Covid 19 vaccine.
So much confusion. I too had to brush up on my notes and university books on biology, immunology and medical pathology. Alas, many years have passed since, as a student, I learned the dogma of medicine: DNA – RNA – Protein. That is, from the genetic information that the DNA has within it, the possibility of the human cell to produce proteins, fundamental for the structure of every single part of our body, arises.
What is “Protein synthesis”
“In order to make proteins the way they are made, precise information is required and these are noted, for each protein, in the genetic material, ie in the DNA and precisely encoded in the nucleotide sequences of the DNA molecules.”
Here is the verb to encode again.
“TRECCANI” online vocabulary
encode v. tr. [from fr. codifier, der. of code «code»] (I code, you code, etc.).
– 1. a. To reduce in code, that is to give a systematic order to a set of juridical norms relating to a specific subject: civil law, international law; c. laws on the press, on employment contracts. b. extens. Arrange a set of rules in an ordinary and coherent way; give regulatory value to uses or customs: c. grammar rules; spelling rules encoded by the use of the most authoritative writers.
2. Express information and messages using the rules and symbols of a conventional system (the code) agreed upon by the sender and receiver of the messages in order to automatically transmit or process information or, sometimes, to keep it secret: c. an order, a message, an instruction. Refers to electronic computers, converting program instructions and data into machine code.
3. In biology, enter the amino acids carried by the transfer RNA, by correspondence between the triplet of this and the triplets of the messenger RNA, during protein synthesis.
MESSENGER RNA: WE CONTINUE TO UNDERSTAND
When duplicated, the DNA transmits these instructions from the mother cell to the daughter cells and in this way each new cell and each new organism can have the information necessary for the synthesis of all the proteins responsible for their structures and functions.
So, to make my daughter understand well too, we are talking about ALL the cells in our body. All of them have an equal basic composition. I’ll show you some jobs they did at the middle school where our fantastic Prof Isabella La Rosa teaches. Each pupil has built a cell in his own way. Just as it is made: nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes, cell membrane….
Really good !!! So, today more than ever, a science lesson should be done. Using your hands, building, cutting, pasting and not always on power points, computers and Co. that do nothing but turn off the intelligence of our children … Okay, this is another problem that we will tackle together in a specific seminar on how our kids are growing up.
But let’s get back to our cell!
In DNA, information is organized into fundamental units made up of sequences of nucleotides called genes.
Each gene is involved in the determination of one or more proteins. So the gene has the information to build a specific protein.
The DNA molecule, due to its size, cannot leave the cell nucleus, while the manufacture of proteins takes place in the cytoplasm and precisely in the ribosomes.
There is therefore a need for an intermediary, or rather a messenger, who takes the information from the DNA inside the nucleus and transfers it to the cytoplasm.
To be able to leave the nucleus, this messenger must be made up of a molecule smaller than DNA: this molecule is ribonucleic acid, or mRNA, which differs from DNA not only because it is smaller but also because sugar is represented by the ribose and not from deoxyribose and because one of its four bases is uracil (U) instead of thymine.
This migrates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where another form of RNA, called transfer RNA (tRNA),
has the task of translating triplets into the language of amino acids.
And finally, the protein has been built!
I personally consider life “a game of chess” with its “real chessboard” … each of us is given the time to decide what will be the move to make and which counter move to foresee.