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N-Acetylcysteine against Covid 19

N-Acetylcysteine to Combat COVID-19: An Evidence Review

Zhongcheng Shi1,2 and  Carlos A Puyo3

Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2020; 16: 1047–1055. Published online 2020 Nov 2. doi: 10.2147/TCRM.S273700


The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by a virus (SARS-Cov-2) and is known for inducing multisystem organ dysfunction associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Current therapeutic strategies for COVID-19 have failed to effectively reduce mortality rate, especially for elderly patients. A newly developed vaccine against SARS-Cov-2 has been reported to induce the production of neutralizing antibodies in young volunteers. However, the vaccine has shown limited benefit in the elderly, suggesting an age-dependent immune response. As a result, exploring new applications of existing medications could potentially provide valuable treatments for COVID-19. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been used in clinical practice to treat critically ill septic patients, and more recently for COVID-19 patients. NAC has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating characteristics that may prove beneficial in the treatment and prevention of SARS-Cov-2. This review offers a thorough analysis of NAC and discusses its potential use for treatment of COVID-19.

N-Acetylcysteine: Introduction

According to the CDC, most SARS-Cov-2 infected individuals can recover from the disease at home. However, this virus can also cause serious illness in immune-compromised individuals, elderly patients, and in those with certain preexisting health conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.1 It takes approximately 7 days to develop computed tomography (CT)-confirmed pneumonia (COVID-19) from the onset symptoms, such as fever or dry cough, and another 2 days to progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).2 ARDS is the major cause of death for COVID-19 patients and is associated with dysregulated host immune responses following viral infection.

One of the early immune responses during viral infection is the production of cytokines and chemokines from immune cells. High levels of IL-8, a strong chemoattractant for neutrophils, has been detected early in infected SARS patients.3 Once activated by infection, neutrophils are rapidly recruited to sites of inflammation in the lungs, where they produce and secrete cytokines, enzymes, including elastase (NE), reactive oxygen species (ROS) by oxidative burst, and finally release DNA to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs).4 In severe COVID-19 patients, an increased number of neutrophils has been associated with disease severity,5 most likely due to the production of large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, creating a “cytokine storm”.


In neutrophils, NE can degrade a wide variety of architecturally and functionally important molecules, such as clotting factors and complement proteins.6 NE activity may, in part, explain the significant increase of D-dimer and pulmonary hemorrhage observed in COVID-19 patients.2 Additionally, NET-bound NE can degrade local plasminogen without generating plasmin onto fibrin, thus resulting in impaired fibrinolysis. This suggests that NE-bound NETs have the potential to serve as a platform for activation and formation of intravascular coagulation,7,8 which partly explains why pulmonary embolism usually occurs in critical COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU).9 

In some critically ill COVID-19 patients, the coexistence of thrombosis and hemorrhage was observed,10 indicating that suppression of NE production by stabilizing neutrophils could be beneficial for either condition. For instance, inhibiting neutrophil activation by an IL-8 antibody can effectively combat acute lung injury.11,12 In other words, any measure that can suppress neutrophil activation might improve the outcomes of COVID-19 patients.

Cellular immunity

Cellular immunity is also required for a host to fight a viral infection, which is regulated by an oxidant-antioxidant balance. This balance is maintained by antioxidants including glutathione. In the immune cells of senior or immune-compromised individuals, ROS is increased due to decreased glutathione, which causes dysregulation of immune responses, particularly of T cell-mediated functions. This may explain the depressed cell-mediated immunity and increased mortality found in elderly persons as a result of infectious diseases, such as pneumonia.13,14 

In fact, in addition to depressed functions, the number of lymphocytes, including both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, was found to decrease linearly with age.15 Furthermore, a reduced number of T cells as a result of apoptosis was also observed in critical COVID-19 patients, which further compromised cellular immunity and was associated with the higher mortality for these populations.2,16Therefore, replenishing certain antioxidants may restore the normal responses of immune cells through inhibiting T cell apoptosis, potentially reducing incidence or severity of pneumonia due to virus infection.


Combining count changes of neutrophils and lymphocytes, several groups have recently revealed that a high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) predicts a more severe progression of the disease and worse outcomes for COVID-19 patients,17–19 suggesting that NLR may be used as a prognostic marker and a therapeutic guide during acute COVID-19 infection. Therefore, in addition to administration of anti-viral drugs, inhibiting neutrophil activation and protecting T cells could provide an effective therapeutic option for treating COVID-19 patients.

Theoretically, an effective vaccine would be the best solution to combat SARS-cov-2 infection. A recent study showed that a recombinant adenovirus type-5 (Ad5) vaccine was capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies at day 14 post-vaccination,20 suggesting that a quick control of the COVID-19 pandemic is a possibility. However, this study also found that the neutralizing antibodies were reduced between the ages of 45 to 60 when compared with younger people.

Since younger people are widely considered the major carriers and spreaders of SARS-Cov-2, effective vaccines are still desperately needed to reduce virus transmission. Meanwhile, exogenous neutralizing antibodies may help those not responsive to the SARS-Cov-2 vaccines. Unfortunately, both vaccines and neutralizing antibodies are still under development. Therefore, a multimodal approach may be necessary when treating COVID-19 in elderly patients or in those with preexisting conditions.

Evidence and Discussions

N-Acetylcysteine, a Forgotten Immune-Modulating Agent

N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor of the antioxidant glutathione, has been used to loosen thick mucus in the lungs and treat acetaminophen overdose for decades. However, NAC can also boost the immune system, suppress viral replication, and reduce inflammation. Despite these valuable features, NAC has been mostly overlooked throughout SARS-Cov and MERS-Cov epidemics, as well as the current COVID-19 pandemic.

NAC Offers the Following Key Features to Combat COVID-19

Anti-Virus Functions of NAC 

RNA viruses need active NF-κB pathway support within host cells in order to replicate. For human coronaviruses (HCoV-229E), suppression of NF-κB significantly reduced the replication rate.22 Therefore, drugs that inhibit NF-κB activation could potentially reduce viral replication.

NAC has been demonstrated to inhibit NF-κB, as well as the replication of human influenza viruses (H5N1, Vietnam/VN1203 strain) in human lung epithelial cells in a dose dependent manner (5 to 15 mM) (Figure 2). NAC also reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-8, CXCL10, CCL5 and IL-6), thus reducing chemotactic migration of monocytes.23 In addition, NAC has also been showed to inhibit replication of other viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)24 and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).25 This means that, theoretically, NAC has the potential to inhibit SARS-Cov-2 as well because of its ability to negatively regulate NF-κB.

… the article continues…

It has been demonstrated that NAC can change the redox balance towards reduced status inside neutrophils by replenishing reduced glutathione (GSH), which suppresses NF-κB activation at concentrations of 10mM or more, resulting in modulation of cytokine production and chemotactic signals.28 Moreover, neutrophils from healthy volunteers taking NAC (600 mg daily) for 14 days showed lower rates of oxidative burst and chemotaxis………Interestingly, NAC did not compromise other functions of neutrophils, such as phagocytosis and bacterial killing.30 Collectively this data supports the notion that 1200 mg of oral NAC can effectively reduce ROS production without compromising phagocytosis of SARS-Cov-2 in neutrophils.

N-Acetylcysteine Can Reduce the Incidence of Pneumonia

Given that oral NAC (600mg, bid) significantly decreased the frequency and severity of influenza, oral NAC may reduce the incidence of pneumonia as well. One study has demonstrated that about 37% of mechanically ventilated patients develop pneumonia, namely, ventilator-associated-pneumonia (VAP) in an intensive care unit. NAC (600 mg, bid) treated patients developed significantly less clinically confirmed pneumonia compared with placebo group patients (26.6% VS 46.6%).34 Another study showed that oral (600mg, bid) NAC significantly reduced the levels of TNF and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly improved oxidative stress.35 Modulation of the inflammatory process with antioxidants may have a mitigating effect in the development of pneumonia, potentially improving outcomes if high doses of NAC (1200mg, bid) are utilized.


N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is inexpensive, has very low toxicity, has been FDA approved for many years, and has the potential to improve therapeutic strategies for COVID-19. NAC administered intravenously, orally, or inhaled, may suppress SARS-CoV-2 replication and may improve outcomes if used timely. Potential therapeutic benefits of NAC include, extracellularly scavenging ROS radicals, replenishing intracellular GSH, suppression of cytokine storm, and T cell protection, thus mitigating inflammation and tissue injury. NAC administration in combination with other antiviral agents may dramatically reduce hospital admission rate, mechanical ventilation and mortality.

Post vaccine homeopathic drainage

Post-vaccine homeopathic drainage against Covid19.

I am writing this article because I have been receiving requests for help for several weeks for the various side effects caused by the inoculation of each of these experimental drugs. Very high fevers, uterine bleeding in people who have been menopausal for years, swollen lymph nodes, up to neurological problems etc. I had never seen, as a doctor, all these serious problems arising after the common vaccinations.

I am a doctor who has nothing against vaccination in general. Unfortunately, however, I must admit that the term vaccine used for these experimental drugs introduced and inoculated to virtually everyone, is really a misnomer.

Looking precisely at the meaning of the word vaccine according to Wikipedia: “A vaccine is a biological preparation produced for the purpose of providing active acquired immunity against a particular type of infection to the subjects to whom it is administered.”

Here, it is evident that using this term there is a risk of thinking that they are completely harmless substances, and that they leave us an immunity. This has now been proven untrue, by months of experience and laboratory diagnosis. There is the sudden lowering of memory antibodies within a few months. Hence, in fact, the need to do two doses and a probable third dose with hypothetical annual repetition.


It is for the word used “vaccine” that many of my pregnant and lactating patients are preparing to be injected with these substances of which we know nothing about either acute or long-term.

Many of my pediatric colleagues are screaming to tell the inconsistency and uselessness of addressing these drugs to young people and even less to babies and children. Their risk of getting Covid is close to zero, while the risks of myocarditis and long-term side effects are much higher. Some scientists point to the onset of future sterility in vaccinated children as a tangible possibility.

However, I do not want to enter into the merits and I absolutely leave the freedom to anyone to think as they want and, however, to take the relative responsibility. I can no longer hear: “they forced me, because I didn’t want to” or “it’s the fault of …”. Everyone has freely chosen to inoculate a substance or have decided not to.

The law does not oblige anyone. And the Government itself says so too, because before the inoculation the signature of an Informed Consent is required. Therefore the administration of these drugs is a free and responsible act.

You have to know that there are many lawyers who help people who do not want to undergo these experimental drugs, to keep their jobs and to make them live without legal problems. I repeat that there is no obligation.

Post vaccine homeopathic drainage

It consists in supporting the system in disposing of the introduced toxins. The problem is that you will not be able to remove them completely. In fact, from the studies done that you can read on Pub med, these toxins / spike proteins manage to enter the cell nucleus. Furthermore, from what is being said among free scientists, it is that in these “top secret” vials there is graphene oxide. And if this were really the case, many and many scenarios would open up for possible aggravation of the pathologies already present in the patient or the onset of new diseases.

Then I ask myself: why are these vials top secret? Why, if they are good elixirs that serve our good, cannot they be had and analyzed? Why can’t you check what’s inside? How I would like to be convinced of their goodness … I would like, as a doctor, only this. The serious and true demonstration that they are good for our children and loved ones.

Recommended therapies

Post vaccine homeopathic drainage
Post vaccine homeopathic drainage

My suggestion for all my patients is based on “bicarbonates and alkalizing substances” to lower the tissue and blood acidity induced by these substances as much as possible. Acidity is what can cause incorrect communication between cells and be a harbinger of side effects and long-term pathologies.

I also suggest a homeopathic Galium aparine that you can find in some homeopathic complexes or in a single remedy. It is an excellent drainage of the extracellular matrix, the space in which each of our cells floats and from which it receives nourishment, information, nerve impulses, etc.

In a nutshell, it is the NETWORK, the union and connection between the cells that in every second have to decide what to do, what to repair or if they want to live or die. A clean matrix will ensure a good balance of the system so as to leave the task to our body to react to insults and stay healthy.

Messenger RNA: what move will it make?

Messenger RNA. We continue the speech of the previous article on the anti-Covid 19 vaccine.

So much confusion. I too had to brush up on my notes and university books on biology, immunology and medical pathology. Alas, many years have passed since, as a student, I learned the dogma of medicine: DNA – RNA – Protein. That is, from the genetic information that the DNA has within it, the possibility of the human cell to produce proteins, fundamental for the structure of every single part of our body, arises.

What is “Protein synthesis”

“In order to make proteins the way they are made, precise information is required and these are noted, for each protein, in the genetic material, ie in the DNA and precisely encoded in the nucleotide sequences of the DNA molecules.”

Here is the verb to encode again.


“TRECCANI” online vocabulary

encode v. tr. [from fr. codifier, der. of code «code»] (I code, you code, etc.).

– 1. a. To reduce in code, that is to give a systematic order to a set of juridical norms relating to a specific subject: civil law, international law; c. laws on the press, on employment contracts. b. extens. Arrange a set of rules in an ordinary and coherent way; give regulatory value to uses or customs: c. grammar rules; spelling rules encoded by the use of the most authoritative writers.

2. Express information and messages using the rules and symbols of a conventional system (the code) agreed upon by the sender and receiver of the messages in order to automatically transmit or process information or, sometimes, to keep it secret: c. an order, a message, an instruction. Refers to electronic computers, converting program instructions and data into machine code.

3. In biology, enter the amino acids carried by the transfer RNA, by correspondence between the triplet of this and the triplets of the messenger RNA, during protein synthesis.


When duplicated, the DNA transmits these instructions from the mother cell to the daughter cells and in this way each new cell and each new organism can have the information necessary for the synthesis of all the proteins responsible for their structures and functions.

So, to make my daughter understand well too, we are talking about ALL the cells in our body. All of them have an equal basic composition. I’ll show you some jobs they did at the middle school where our fantastic Prof Isabella La Rosa teaches. Each pupil has built a cell in his own way. Just as it is made: nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes, cell membrane….

Messanger RNA. The human cell
Messanger RNA. The human cell.

Really good !!! So, today more than ever, a science lesson should be done. Using your hands, building, cutting, pasting and not always on power points, computers and Co. that do nothing but turn off the intelligence of our children … Okay, this is another problem that we will tackle together in a specific seminar on how our kids are growing up.

But let’s get back to our cell!

In DNA, information is organized into fundamental units made up of sequences of nucleotides called genes.

Each gene is involved in the determination of one or more proteins. So the gene has the information to build a specific protein.

The DNA molecule, due to its size, cannot leave the cell nucleus, while the manufacture of proteins takes place in the cytoplasm and precisely in the ribosomes.

There is therefore a need for an intermediary, or rather a messenger, who takes the information from the DNA inside the nucleus and transfers it to the cytoplasm.

Messenger RNA. The human cell
Messenger RNA. Human cell

To be able to leave the nucleus, this messenger must be made up of a molecule smaller than DNA: this molecule is ribonucleic acid, or mRNA, which differs from DNA not only because it is smaller but also because sugar is represented by the ribose and not from deoxyribose and because one of its four bases is uracil (U) instead of thymine.

This migrates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where another form of RNA, called transfer RNA (tRNA),

has the task of translating triplets into the language of amino acids.

Messenger RNA. How does it work?
Messenger RNA. How does it work?

And finally, the protein has been built!

I personally consider life “a game of chess” with its “real chessboard” … each of us is given the time to decide what will be the move to make and which counter move to foresee.

Covid 19 Vaccine

Covid 19 Vaccine

Vaccine against Covid 19. I wanted to reproduce the package leaflet published by AIFA in full and without any judgment. This is because a few days ago I was contacted by a teacher who was very confused by various information received and asked for explanations. He claimed that the vaccine below was not messenger RNA. This is why I have highlighted a word for you: codify. In the following article, which represents the continuation and conclusion of this, I report the term codify for both the Treccani encyclopedia and Wikipedia. And I will give you a brief explanation of the normal DNA – RNA – Protein mechanism … as always, everyone will reason, understand and make their own thoughts. Thank you.

Package leaflet: information for the user

COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca, suspension for injection

COVID-19 vaccine (ChAdOx1-S [recombinant])

Medicinal product subject to additional monitoring. This will allow the rapid identification of new safety information. You can help by reporting any side effects you experience while taking this medicine. See end of section 4 for information on how to report side effects.

Read all of this leaflet carefully before you are given the vaccine because it contains important information for you.

Keep this leaflet. You may need to read it again.

If you have any further questions, ask your doctor, pharmacist or nurse.

If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor, pharmacist or nurse. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet. See paragraph 4 ………

1. What is COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca and what is it for

COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca is used to prevent COVID-19, a disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.

COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca is given to adults aged 18 years or older.

The vaccine stimulates the body’s natural defenses (the immune system) to produce antibodies and specialized white blood cells that act against the virus, thus providing protection against COVID-19. None of the components of this vaccine can cause COVID-19.

2. What you need to know before you are given COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca The vaccine must not be given:

– if you are allergic to the active substance or to any of the other ingredients of this vaccine (listed in section 6).

Warnings and Precautions

Talk to your doctor, pharmacist or nurse before being given COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca:

– if you have had a severe allergic reaction after any other vaccine injection or after having been given COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca in the past;

– then if you have ever fainted after an injection with a needle;

– if you have a severe infection with a high fever (over 38 ° C). On the other hand, you may receive the vaccination if you have a low fever or an upper respiratory infection such as a cold;

– if you have bleeding or bruising problems or if you are taking an anti-coagulant drug (to prevent the formation of blood clots); 27 Document made available by AIFA on 02/02/2021 AIFA is not responsible for any dispute concerning rights industrial property rights and the patent protection of data relating to the AIC of medicinal products and, therefore, the Agency cannot be held responsible in any way for any violations by the holder of the marketing authorization (or marketing authorization holder) .

– if your immune system is not working properly (immunodeficiency) or you are taking medicines that weaken the immune system (such as high-dose corticosteroids, immunosuppressants or anticancer medicines).

If you are not sure if any of the conditions described above apply to you, talk to your doctor, pharmacist or nurse before you are given the vaccine.

As with any vaccine, the 2-dose COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca vaccination course may not fully protect everyone who receives it. The duration of protection is unknown. There are currently limited data available on the efficacy of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca in individuals aged 55 years or older.

Children and adolescents

COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca is not recommended for children under the age of 18. At present, there is insufficient information on the use of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca in children and adolescents under the age of 18.

Other medicines and COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca

Tell your doctor, pharmacist or nurse if you are taking, have recently taken or might take any other medicines or vaccines.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

If you are pregnant, think you may be pregnant or are planning to have a baby or are breast-feeding, ask your doctor, pharmacist or nurse for advice before receiving this vaccine.

Driving and using machines

Some of the side effects of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca listed in section 4 (Possible side effects) may temporarily reduce the ability to drive and use machines. If you feel unwell after vaccination, do not drive or use machines. Wait until these effects disappear before driving or using machines.

COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca contains sodium and alcohol (ethanol)

This medicinal product contains less than 1 mmol sodium (23 mg) per 0.5 mL dose, ie essentially “sodium-free”.

This medicine contains 2 mg of alcohol (ethanol) per 0.5 mL dose. The small amount of alcohol in this medicine will have no noticeable effect.

3. How COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca is given

COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca is given as a 0.5 mL injection into the muscle (usually in the upper arm).

During and after each injection of the vaccine, your doctor, pharmacist or nurse will keep you under observation for about 15 minutes to monitor for any signs of an allergic reaction.

You will receive 2 injections of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca. The second injection can be given 4 to 12 weeks after the first injection. You will be told when to go to receive the second injection.

If the first injection of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca is given, the second injection will also need to be with COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca to complete the vaccination course.

… then, if you miss the appointment for the second injection of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca

If you forget to return at the scheduled time, contact your doctor, pharmacist or nurse. It is important that you come back for your second injection of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca. If you forget your scheduled injection, you may not be fully protected against COVID-19.

Document made available by AIFA on 02/02/2021

Any dispute concerning industrial property rights and patent protection of data relating to the AIC of medicines is beyond the competence of AIFA and, therefore, the Agency cannot be held responsible in any way for any violations by the owner of the marketing authorization (or marketing authorization holder).

4. Possible side effects

Like all medicines, this vaccine can cause side effects, although not everybody gets them. If you notice any side effects not mentioned in this leaflet, please inform your doctor, pharmacist or nurse.

Get urgent medical attention if symptoms of a severe allergic reaction occur. Such reactions can include a combination of any of the following symptoms:

– feeling faint or lightheaded

– changes in heartbeat

–  shortness of breath

– wheezing

– swelling of the lips, face or throat

– hives or rash

– nausea or vomiting

– stomach pain The following side effects may occur with COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca: Very common (may affect more than 1 in 10 people)

– tenderness, pain, heat, itching or bruising at the injection site

– feeling tired (fatigue) or generally feeling unwell

– chills or a feeling of fever

–  headache

– feeling sick (nausea)

– joint pain or muscle pain Common (may affect up to 1 in 10 people)

– swelling or redness at the injection site

– fever (> 38 ° C)

– being sick (vomiting) or diarrhea Uncommon (may affect up to 1 in 100 people)

– sleepiness or dizziness

– decreased appetite

– enlarged lymph nodes

– Excessive sweating, itching or rash Reporting of side effects If you get any side effects, including any side effects not listed in this leaflet, talk to your doctor, pharmacist or nurse. You can also report side effects directly via the national reporting system listed in Appendix V. By reporting side effects you can help provide more information on the safety of this medicine.

5. How to store COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca

Keep this medicine out of the sight and reach of children.

The doctor, pharmacist or nurse are responsible for the storage of this vaccine and for the correct disposal of any unused product. The following information on storage, expiry, use, handling and disposal is intended for healthcare professionals.

Do not use this vaccine after the expiry date which is stated on the label after EXP. The expiry date refers to the last day of that month.


Document made available by AIFA on 02/02/2021

Any dispute concerning industrial property rights and patent protection of data relating to the AIC of medicines is beyond the competence of AIFA and, therefore, the Agency cannot be held responsible in any way for any violations by the owner of the marketing authorization (or marketing authorization holder).

Store in a refrigerator (2 ° C – 8 ° C).

Do not freeze.

Keep the vials in the outer carton to protect them from light.

From the moment of opening the vial (first needle puncture) until administration, keep the vial for no more than 48 hours in the refrigerator (2 ° C – 8 ° C). Within this time period the product can be stored and used at temperatures up to 30 ° C for a single period of up to 6 hours. After this time, the product must be disposed of. Do not put it back in the refrigerator.

Discard the vial if the suspension shows any discolouration or if particles are observed. Don’t shake.

COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca contains genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Unused vaccine or waste derived from this medicinal product must be disposed of in accordance with local guidelines for genetically modified organisms or biohazardous waste. Spills must be disinfected using agents with activity against adenovirus.

6. Contents of the pack and other information

What COVID-19 contains Vaccine AstraZeneca

One dose (0.5 mL) contains:

Chimpanzee (monkey) adenovirus encoding the SARS-CoV-2 ChAdOx1-S spike glycoprotein, not less than 2.5 x 108 infectious units

* Produced in genetically modified human embryonic kidney cells (HEK) 293 and by recombinant DNA technology. … (I believe that the asterisk can be interpreted like this: the chimpanzee adenovirus was “cultured” in human embryonic kidney cells).

This product contains genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

The other ingredients are L-histidine, L-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate, magnesium chloride hexahydrate, polysorbate 80 (E 433), sucrose, disodium edetate (dihydrate), water for injections (see section 2 “COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca contains sodium and alcohol “).

What COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca looks like and contents of the pack

Suspension for injection (injection). The suspension is colorless to slightly brown, clear to slightly opaque.


– 8-dose multidose vial (4 mL) with a stopper (elastomeric with aluminum seal) in a pack of 10 vials. Each vial contains 8 doses of 0.5 mL.

– 10-dose multidose vial (5 mL) with a stopper (elastomeric with aluminum seal) in a pack of 10 vials. Each vial contains 10 doses of 0.5 mL. Not all pack sizes may be marketed. Marketing Authorization Holder

This medicine has been granted a “conditional” authorization. This means that further data on this medicinal product should be provided.

The European Medicines Agency will review new information on this medicine at least annually and this leaflet will be updated as necessary.


More detailed information on this medicine is available on the website of the European Agency of medicines, http://www.ema.europa.eu

This sheet is available in all languages ​​of the European Union / European Economic Area on the website of the European Medicines Agency.

Bach flowers help us in this very difficult moment of our life

Bach flowers help us in this very difficult moment of our life. No one would ever have imagined facing such a situation. Many speak of Obscurantism, of a new Middle Ages. The certain fact is that we feel trapped, at the mercy of a magone made up of insecurities, devoid of points of reference. A magone in which you flounder because you don’t know who to listen to. Concerns for work, for our health and especially for the Tomorrow of our children.

Here, in this sea of ​​emotions come our “Rescue Flowers”! I present them to you and immediately recommend you to use them with confidence, to entrust them with gratitude. Let them come into your lives.

Rescue Flowers

In this and future articles I will tell you about Rock Rose, Gorse, Walnut and Elm. Like the “Four Musketeers” they will help you with perseverance, love, determination but also with the lightness that sometimes accompanies friendly help.

Let’s start with COURAGE. I’ll show you a photo that I projected in class a few days ago. In my opinion it expresses very well what we MUST do NOW.

Bach Flowers for courage
Bach Flowers for Courage

We are here to walk this path, this very precarious and fragile thread. We feel small, helpless. All too difficult to understand, to face. But let’s wake up. We find that healthy UNCONSCIOUSNESS of when we were little. We are not alone, there will always be help for us. The affection of a loved one, the constant presence of a trusted life partner such as our cat, our dog that protects our backs, that supports us if we are about to fall. And on the other hand, hope and planning are firmly in our hands that we must never let fly away. Our connection with spirituality, with our soul. The balloon that we hold strong, raises our heart, makes it light and safe for a tomorrow that will be better … I’m sure of it.

All this is Rock Rose. It is used when we are attacked by terror and panic. Taking it will help us develop courage. We will regain strength of nerves in the critical stages of life. When there seems to be no hope left, take and recommend this flower with great powers.

Rock Rose Bach Flower
Rock Rose Bach Flower

Find help in Bach flowers

Find help in Bach flowers. We keep talking about our precious, faithful friends. We saw Rock Rose, and now we will talk about the other “Three Musketeers”: Gorse, Walnut and Elm.

After courage, it is essential to have “HOPE” in front of us and within us. Without this we won’t even be able to get out of bed. She gives us the strength to go on, she makes us believe that we can do it.


Make a therapy with Gorse means taking back the joy of believing in the future, of thinking that the negative experiences of the past will not be repeated and that in any case they served to learn. It is said that Gorse is “the sun in the bottle”, so think of Gorse when you want the energy, warmth, life and hope of the Sun inside you, when you really want to feel them flowing through your veins.

find help in bach flowers
Find help in bach flowers: Gorse

Well, and now we come to CHANGE. Courage and hope support us to face the very thing that scares us most: change. The new we do not know what will be. A change of work, office, home, school, but also a change that we must make to get better and that requires us to make choices.


Walnut is a flower that helps us make and accept this change in a positive way. It will take away all the negative influences, all those gossips that gossip behind our backs, the grumbling and negative criticisms of the new neighbors. We will no longer feel them because we will be balanced and centered on our being and on our choice. Walnut is precisely the flower that gives us positivity in change, we can say that it is the flower of Resilience.

Find help in Bach Flowers: Walnut
Find help in Bach Flowers: Walnut

Elm: Find help in Bach flowers

Find help in Bach Flowers: Elm
Find help in Bach Flowers: Elm

The last but not the least is Elm. Wow, what a fantastic flower. I once did a meditation on this very flower and experienced all its power. Yes, that’s right, through meditation, led by our friend Tiziana Buttari, I was able to feel what Elm gives to the people who take it: POLISH, a clear vision of what you have to do. It is like the moment before entering the battle.

You are focused and aware of what you want to do. Bright clarity and everything is there before your eyes. You just have to get up, put the helmet on your face and ACT! You will feel grit, power but also calm and serenity given by the unshakable certainty of the goodness of the road you have chosen. Come on, let’s move on, let’s not stop believing in a better world!

A vegetable garden to learn how to live

A vegetable garden teaches us in a simple way how we are made and what we should learn about ourselves to live healthily.

It happens that on a beautiful Sunday in May, my husband and I go to buy some plants for the garden which, with great effort, we managed to do. We studied, watched tutorials and eventually managed to build a small raised vegetable patch in our garden. And now? The choice of seedlings, which ones are in season, at what distance to put them, how many to put. How much respect do we have to give to growing seedlings to each find its own living space?

Well. We decide to go to the village market where we are sure to find farmers and farmers who will be able to explain the first rudiments. And indeed it is. Maybe we felt sorry for him or maybe he was tender, I don’t know.

However, our peasant master teaches us: “you don’t have to water every day. I recommend it. Every two or three days you can give him a drink. Even if you see that the earth on the surface is dry, it is not deep down. In this way you will force the plant to take deeper and deeper roots and therefore to become stronger. If, on the other hand, you give them water every day, the roots will only be superficial and the first day you forget to water them, they would dry up. Or it may happen that at the first rain with too much water the collar would rot…. “

A vegetable garden to learn how to live: Simple words

Such simple words to describe our immune system don’t exist! Our master gardener was very good. This knowledge is so easy to understand! So why have most people forgotten this? In the name of what do we poison the bodies of our children? For fear of what unlikely diseases do we subject a newborn immune system to so many chemical rains? Why don’t we let it harden itself, like seedlings?

I remember that, when I was little, there were healthy children in our classes, some more undisciplined, but all, all healthy. Today in our children’s classrooms there are dyslexics, various degrees of learning disorders, children with asthma, dermatitis, food intolerances, epilepsy up to even more severe pathologies such as autism and psychotic disorders of different levels. Could it be that this is just the case? But are there really those who think this?

a vegetable garden to learn how to live
a vegetable garden to learn how to live

Immature brains that are bombarded by constant and incessant electrical impulses. Children in the stroller with cell phones in hand because parents have to eat a pizza in peace. Just look for a moment of tranquility, but not at the expense of your children’s mental health. You cannot imagine the irreparable brain damage you are creating. If we were born with a ready and efficient brain we would not need months, years to learn to talk and walk.

Guys who, with this pandemic, do nothing but go from mobile phones, to computers, to video games, to tablets… the neurons are shutting down. There is a loss of reality. As doctors, we are witnessing enormous problems of identity, relationship and understanding of our adolescent boys.

I suggest:

In the meantime, we can begin to repair neurological damage using diluted and dynamized BDNF. BDNF is a neurotrophic growth factor that each of us has but which, in certain situations, cannot cope with injuries.

Another integration for all that is memory, nervous system and membranes is given by the contribution of Omega3, omega6. There are special specific formulations on the market EPA, DHA and GLA in the special 9: 3: 1 ratio that help a lot to repair the nervous and brain structures of our children by restoring proper nerve conduction.

It is time to wake up. To take back what nature teaches us good: respect for times, spaces, necessity that makes virtue. I don’t want to give up. I still firmly believe in a better world … and you?

Homeopathy and Covid 19

Homeopathy and Covid 19

Homeopathy and Covid 19. Article taken from Pub med. Pub med is the archive where all doctors and scientists find works and publications in journals with a high impact factor. They are always controlled and serious publications on which all the people working in the field of science find concrete and undoubtedly serious answers.

This is meant to be a starting point on which everyone can make their own considerations.

Medicine is unique, and it is what brings the patient to recovery! So Allopathy and Integrated Medicine can and must help each other for the common good: our health.

Homeopathy and Covid 19

Z Gesundh Wiss. 2020 Jun 5 : 1–4. doi: 10.1007/s10389-020-01305-z [Epub ahead of print]PMCID: PMC7272237PMID: 32837839

Homeopathy combat against coronavirus disease (Covid-19)

D. Kalliantas,1,2M. Kallianta,3 and  Ch. S. Karagianni1Author informationArticle notesCopyright and License informationDisclaimerGo to:


On the 29th of December 2019 a number of cases with unknown origin pneumonia were admitted to the hospital of Wuhan, in China. This was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, named as coronavirus (2019-nCoV) (Shajeea et al. 2020; Huang et al. 2020). It is an acute infectious disease mainly impacting the respiratory system, which has been found for the first time in human beings (WHO 2020).

Symptoms of Covid-19 are similar to other viral upper respiratory illnesses. Three major severity level phases characterize the coronavirus disease: a mild phase with upper respiratory symptoms, non-severe pneumonia, and severe pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The main systemic and respiratory symptoms caused by Covid-19 infection are dependent on the age of the patient and the status of the patient’s immune system (Wang et al. 2020abc). The main systemic disorders are fever, cough, fatigue, sputum production, headache, haemoptysis, acute cardiac injuries, hypoxemia, dyspnoea, lymphopenia, and diarrhea. On the other hand, the main respiratory disorders are rhinorrhoea, sneezing, sore throat, pneumonia, ground-glass opacities, RNAaemia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (Hussin and Siddappa 2020). 


The novelty of the virus rests in its unpredictable strange behavior, although in the early stages of the infection it develops very slowly and behaves like the common viruses; if it finds a weakened immune system, it proceeds severely fast, destroying the lungs, by creating pulmonary fibrosis. At this state the patient has a level of dyspnea as if he is drowning in water. At present, there are no specific antiviral drugs or vaccine against Covid-19 infection for potential therapy of humans. T

he only option available is using broad-spectrum antiviral drugs, HIV-protease inhibitors that could attenuate virus infection and chloroquine, which has been shown to control the 2019-n Co V infection in vitro (Lu 2020; Chen et al. 2020; Wang et al. 2020abc; Toots et al. 2019). 

Anti-inflammatory drugs (such as hormones and other molecules), as well as Chinese traditional medicines, such as ShuFengJieDu capsules and Lianhuaqingwen capsules, have also been used (Ji et al. 2020; Ding et al. 2017).

All of the drug options come from experience in treating SARS, MERS, or some other new influenza viruses previously, and are aiming to address active symptoms. These drugs above may prove helpful, but their efficacy needs to be further confirmed. The research methodology with regard to traditional or other medicines which are needed in this pandemic is mentioned by others (Lu 2020; Wang et al. 2020abc; Zhang et al. 2020).

In our present work, we will focus upon the logical structure and benefits of homeopathy as a therapeutic system suitable to cope with this pandemic.


With the help of mathematics, we will show that the fundamental therapeutic law on which homeopathy is founded can be proved.Go to:

Homeopathy and Covid 19. Results and discussion

Homeopathy is a natural therapy method and an experimental science. It exploits a main property of nature, that of self-similarity on a change of scale. The term self-similarity is used to show that similarity between the disease and the substantces which under the same conditions present similar behavior must be full and lead to a mathematical identity.

Homeopathy, as a healing method, is based on the Hippocratic ΄΄Similia Similibus Curentur΄΄ therapeutic law. The physician relies on the wholeness of symptoms revealed during the entire evolution of the infection, and prescribes an ultra – high diluted succussed solution product which has been proven to heal similar conditions. This is a great advantage in this timing while Covid-19 disease is in rapid devemopment, because the diagnosis of the indicated ultra-high diluted succussed solution product is based on individual symptoms (if these are very characteristic) or on the totality of symptoms, and not in the pathology.

Established medicine has to wait until the cause for the pathology is found, whereas in homeopathy we take into consideration the response of the organism to the causative factor (the totality of the symptoms) in order to start the treatment. Therefore, the intervention can be immediate and very helpful for the patient.


The totality of symptoms for each patient become the guiding signs for finding the indicated remedy. In that way we can prescribe an ultra high – diluted succussed solution product with the first manifestation of symptoms, preventing the full development of the pathology. Let us not forget that the basic principle is that there are not diseases but patients, and that every patient is a special case. Homeopathic ultra – high diluted succussed medicinal products which are used as remedies come from nature (of plant, animal, mineral nosode origin etc.), naturally manufactured (trituration, dilution, succussion) and with an infinite storage time.

They present reverse self-similarity properties with almost all known diseases. Also, as we have demonstrated in our previous work, the physical features — size and granularity — of solid raw starting materials to prepare these ultra high diluted succussed solution products are strongly affected by trituration in lactose, before turning them into homeopathic solutions, and in the final triturated step the materials are transformed into micro/nano scale (Kalliantas et al. 2018; Kalliantas et al. 2017). The validation of the Hippocratic idea that a substance which may cause symptoms to a healthy person can also cure these symptoms was carried out for the first time by S. Hahnemann with Cortex Peruvian fever tree bark. He called this work “drug proving” and he was the first to lay the foundations of the experimental medicine long before the birth of Claude Bernard (Kalliantas 2008).

Homeopathy and Covid 19 … a little mathematics that brings us back to statistical calculations to prove the data of this great scientific work.


Let us see how this reasoning–practice can be depicted on a mathematical level theoretically. The value of this footprint helps the logic of documentation–foundation that runs through homeopathy. Let E and E’ be the patient and the prover (a healthy person on whom a homeopathic remedy is tested for effectiveness) respectively.

Patient E.

A = Dynamic operator of the pathogenic cause.

χi = Symptom or symptoms of physical disease which correspond to the alterations of the biochemical kinetics of the organism after the action of A.

χ0 = the normal biochemical kinetics of the organism.

The term “operator” means a symbol, which, when being applied to a function, is transformed into another.

Prover E’.

C = Dynamic operator of the under-examination pathogenic substance.x′ι= Symptom or symptoms of the prover which correspond to alterations of the biochemical kinetics of the organism after the action of C.χ′0= the normal biochemical kinetics of the prover.

According to the above statement, the patient, before becoming ill, was healthy, and a pathogenic cause had an effect on him. The action of A upon E gives us symptoms. Therefore, it could be said that the symptom or symptoms are the result of the action A and its development on x0 of E. Then, it could be considered that:xi=Ax0.1

Continue the math and statistics

Here A can be considered to transform x0 into xi (disturbed metabolism). Similarly, if x′ιis the same symptom or symptoms in the prover as those of the patient, then this is a result of the C’s action, which is the dynamics of the under-examination pathogenic substance in χ′0, which is the normal biochemical kinetics of the prover.

Then we havexi′=Cx0′2

Here C again can be considered to transform x′0 into x′i. Since the patient and the prover are human beings with similar functions (there are no identical organisms), the relationship which connects their biochemical kinetics can take place with the help of an operator, such as B.

Then we havexi′=Bxi3x0′=Bx04


So (3)⇒(1)x′i=BAx05

From (4)⇒x′0=Bx0⇒x0=B−1x′06

and (5)⇒x′i=(BAB−1)x′0


It can be observed that the “operators” C and A which correspondingly represent the dynamics of the pathogenic substance and the dynamics of the pathogenic factor are interrelated with an affine transformation.

The operator B is used to connect two biochemical kinetics, the patient and the prover, in an equality relationship. It could also be noticed that in the equation of operators C = BAB−1, B is presented as the product of itself with its opposite.


Homeopathy is an individualized system of therapy, therefore there is no possibility that one remedy will cure all cases of a specific pathology. However, from the afore-mentioned symptoms, both respiratory and systemic, professional homeopathic physicians could use homeopathic ultra – high diluted succussed solution products in the early stages of pathology such as Aconitum napellus or Arcenicum Album or Eupatorium perfoliatum or Gelsemium or Ipecacuana, in the later stages Bryonia or Phosphorus as the main drugs, and in the final stages Antimonium Tartaricum or Baptisia or Camphor Officinalis. (Vithoulkas 1997; Ghegas 2000; Allen 1995; Boericke 1990; Schroyens 1993). All the ultra – high diluted succussed solution product doses can be given to patients in 200c or 1 M potencies without using any other medications.Go to:

“… I remind you that homeopathic remedies have been declared drugs. So Homeopathy and Covid 19: at stake are DRUGS such as Aconitum Napellus, Arsenicum Album, Phosphorus, Bryonia, Camphora, Gelsemium, Eupatorium, Antimonium Tartaricum. “

Homeopathy and Covid 19. Conclusion

Today, it is imperative that ever-safe medicinal products such as homeopathic ultra – high diluted succussed solutions are tested in this pandemic. Epidemiological research has to be carried out to include homeopathic treatment and compare it to established treatments. Patients should be assigned randomly in two different groups of at least 200–400 individuals, and receive respectively established and homeopathic treatment. The evaluation of the results from both groups could reveal which group has a superior outcome in survival, general health conditions, etc., and to what extent.Go to:

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no financial or other conflicts of interest in relation to this research and its publication.Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Our OmeoCourses … for everyone!

Our OmeoCourses! We are finally able to tell you about it. We have been studying for a long time, doing lessons, recordings, video montages in different languages. Everything always in the simplest and most usable way to get to everyone’s curiosity, absolutely everyone! We would very much like each of you to understand more and understand how useful homeopathy is, what its scientific functioning is, how many benefits you can have with essential oils and Schussler salts. Because studying with us means broadening the mind and embracing other possibilities of treatment to get better.

Omeocourses: Study class on essential oils
Omeocourses: Study class on essential oils

Taking responsibility for your health is a duty, it is the act we owe to ourselves.

Homeopathy and other medical therapies that you will study with us are rightly part of MEDICINE. Yes, there is only one of MEDICINE and it is the one that embraces and considers all the various paths that can lead that person towards a healing process. This may mean that a patient of mine, to cure a bachelor-humeral periarthritis, may need paracetamol, but perhaps also Rhus Toxicodendron homeopathic medicine or even a Ruta Absinthe Ointment from the Ildegardian medicine! Or even more, to broaden his vision and understand why at that particular moment in his life he is suffering from this nasty periarthritis with the help of archetypal psychology and the teachings of Jung.



With our OmeoCourses you will learn how important it is to keep your system healthy. Remember that you are the guardians of your body and it is based on the choices you make every day that you can get sick in a certain way.

Health must necessarily pass from the concept of unity as “body-mind-spirit”. So we are and MEDICINE must take care of our UNIT.

And that is why in our articles, study groups and OmeoCourses you will also find lessons, webinars, seminars on meditation and yoga that teach us to breathe and to bring awareness into our “I”. We need to listen to ourselves more, to feel our body much more often.

There are days that I don’t even notice I’m breathing for how many things I have to do. The days slip one over the other without even having the perception. A moment for us to be with ourselves, breathe and remember that we are living! It sounds like nonsense but stop for a moment and think about it … then you’ll tell me!

Covid and Vitamin D

Covid and Vitamin D. Numerous and serious scientific evidence underlines the importance of vitamin D therapy to defend ourselves against Covid 19. It is fundamental in prevention but also extremely important in the treatment of people symptomatic of SARS COV2 viral infection. In fact, it has been seen that treatment with high doses of vitamin D quickly regains the health of patients, even those in intensive care. Therefore, it lowers the risk of aggravation of the disease, thus reducing mortality.

Here are two of the many articles written by professionals from all over the world. I will put the Links so whoever likes to read the entire article can do it.

J Infect Public Health. 2020 Oct;13(10):1373-1380.Role of vitamin D in preventing of COVID-19 infection, progression and severity. Nurshad Ali


The outbreak of COVID-19 has created a global public health crisis. Little is known about the protective factors of this infection. Therefore, preventive health measures that can reduce the risk of infection, progression and severity are desperately needed. This review discussed the possible roles of vitamin D in reducing the risk of COVID-19 and other acute respiratory tract infections and severity. Moreover, this study determined the correlation of vitamin D levels with COVID-19 cases and deaths in 20 European countries as of 20 May 2020. 

A significant negative correlation (p=0.033) has been observed between mean vitamin D levels and COVID-19 cases per one million population in European countries. However, the correlation of vitamin D with COVID-19 deaths of these countries was not significant. Some retrospective studies demonstrated a correlation between vitamin D status and COVID-19 severity and mortality, while other studies did not find the correlation when confounding variables are adjusted. Several studies demonstrated the role of vitamin D in reducing the risk of acute viral respiratory tract infections and pneumonia. These include direct inhibition with viral replication or with anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory ways. 


In the meta-analysis, vitamin D supplementation has been shown as safe and effective against acute respiratory tract infections. Thus, people who are at higher risk of vitamin D deficiency during this global pandemic should consider taking vitamin D supplements to maintain the circulating 25(OH)D in the optimal levels (75-125nmol/L). In conclusion, there is not enough evidence on the association between vitamin D levels and COVID-19 severity and mortality. Therefore, randomized control trials and cohort studies are necessary to test this hypothesis.

Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths. Nutrients. 2020 Apr 2;12(4):988.William B Grant1Henry Lahore2Sharon L McDonnell3Carole A Baggerly3Christine B French3Jennifer L Aliano3Harjit P Bhattoa4


The world is in the grip of the COVID-19 pandemic. Public health measures that can reduce the risk of infection and death in addition to quarantines are desperately needed. This article reviews the roles of vitamin D in reducing the risk of respiratory tract infections, knowledge about the epidemiology of influenza and COVID-19, and how vitamin D supplementation might be a useful measure to reduce risk. Through several mechanisms, vitamin D can reduce risk of infections. Those mechanisms include inducing cathelicidins and defensins that can lower viral replication rates and reducing concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines that produce the inflammation that injures the lining of the lungs, leading to pneumonia, as well as increasing concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Several observational studies and clinical trials reported that vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of influenza, whereas others did not. Evidence supporting the role of vitamin D in reducing risk of COVID-19 includes that the outbreak occurred in winter, a time when 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations are lowest; that the number of cases in the Southern Hemisphere near the end of summer are low; that vitamin D deficiency has been found to contribute to acute respiratory distress syndrome; and that case-fatality rates increase with age and with chronic disease comorbidity, both of which are associated with lower 25(OH)D concentration.


To reduce the risk of infection, it is recommended that people at risk of influenza and/or COVID-19 consider taking 10,000 IU/d of vitamin D3 for a few weeks to rapidly raise 25(OH)D concentrations, followed by 5000 IU/d. The goal should be to raise 25(OH)D concentrations above 40-60 ng/mL (100-150 nmol/L). For treatment of people who become infected with COVID-19, higher vitamin D3 doses might be useful. Randomized controlled trials and large population studies should be conducted to evaluate these recommendations.

Covid and Vitamin D
Covid and Vitamin D

Covid 19 and Vitamin D… Let’s reflect.

“So, do you understand what the dosage of life d must be in the blood in order for you to protect yourself from VOC 2?”

The normal reference ranges found on laboratory reports are: 30-100. So I wonder why, given the importance of this vitamin, there is all this difficulty in prescribing it. We cannot be satisfied with having 20 or 30 levels of vitamin D in the blood!

And then, let’s remember the importance of this vitamin in fighting cancer! He is a precious warrior who defends us from evil transformations. Cancer is a tissue that loves acidosis, wallows and proliferates blissfully in acidity … Our tissues are becoming more acidified. We have been breathing our own carbon dioxide since March 2020 … Do you remember words like lactic acid, carbon dioxide, tissue acidosis? … Well, I leave everyone their own conclusions.